Differences From Ethereum

Axonum is designed to be EVM equivalent and introduces as few changes as possible to the Ethereum protocol. However, there are some minor differences between the behavior of Ethereum and Axonum.


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Address Aliasing

Address aliasing is an important security feature that impacts the behavior of transactions sent from L1 to L2 by smart contracts. Make sure to read this section carefully if you are working with cross-chain transactions. Note that the CrossChainMessenger contracts will handle address aliasing internally on your behalf.

When transactions are sent from L1 to L2 by an Externally Owned Account, the address of the sender of the transaction on L2 will be set to the address of the sender of the transaction on L1. However, the address of the sender of a transaction on L2 will be different if the transaction was triggered by a smart contract on L1.

Because of the behavior of the CREATE opcode, it is possible to create a contract on both L1 and on L2 that share the same address but have different bytecode. Even though these contracts share the same address, they are fundamentally two different smart contracts and cannot be treated as the same contract. As a result, the sender of a transaction sent from L1 to L2 by a smart contract cannot be the address of the smart contract on L1 or the smart contract on L1 could act as if it were the smart contract on L2 (because the two contracts share the same address).

To prevent this sort of impersonation, the sender of a transaction is slightly modified when a transaction is sent from L1 to L2 by a smart contract. Instead of appearing to be sent from the actual L1 contract address, the L2 transaction appears to be sent from an "aliased" version of the L1 contract address. This aliased address is a constant offset from the actual L1 contract address such that the aliased address will never conflict with any other address on L2 and the original L1 address can easily be recovered from the aliased address.

This change in sender address is only applied to L2 transactions sent by L1 smart contracts. In all other cases, the transaction sender address is set according to the same rules used by Ethereum.


Transaction Fees

Transactions Axonum must pay for an L1 data fee on top of the standard execution gas fee you would expect on Ethereum. Refer to the guide on Transaction Fees for more information.

EIP-1559 Parameters

The base fee on Axonum is, like Ethereum, computed via the EIP-1559 mechanism. The EIP-1559 parameters used by Axonum differ from those used by Ethereum as follows.

Mempool Rules

Unlike Ethereum, Axonum does not have a large public mempool. The Axonum Sequencer mempool is currently only visible to the Sequencer. The Sequencer executes transactions from the mempool in priority fee order (highest fee first).

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